Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers Top

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers in Top  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Aluminium Window Frames For Sale

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Aluminum Glazing Extrusions it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Aluminium Window Frames For Sale

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Aluminium Windows

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Aluminum Extrusions For Glass the drawing process is skipped.

Aluminium Window Frames Details

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers in Top?

Aluminium Windows Cape Town

Metal fabrication equipment is used in important facets of the manufacturing industry. It serves the structural steel industry very well as it helps in other metal fabricating industries. Producers of this equipment have clients ranging from small and medium size enterprises to iron and fabricating shops and large construction companies.

The most common types of metal fabrication equipment include hydraulic press brakes, pinch rolls, plate shears, bending machines, tube benders and plate rolls. All these machines will help the entire workload easier. Look into the features of these types of equipment.

Hydraulic press brakes

Hydraulic press brakes are created to deliver the kind of ease and comfort an operator is looking for in the product. They are equipped with a ram system to provide maximum efficiency on operator control. Down stroking ram systems are favored over up stroking systems because they lessen operator fatigue. The system with a thick ram makes it easier to move in between extra heavy frames. Alongside with this component, a steel torsion is also utilized. At times, the hydraulic press brake contains limit switches and overload protection systems. Speeds of the press brakes are adjustable and controllable as well.

Hydraulic shears

This is yet another type of metal fabrication equipment used in order to make the job of individuals easier. Looking for those with foot pedals and emergency stops is highly favorable for the company. Programmable axes may help control blade gaps, stroke length, back gauge and shearing times. At times, the shears are also commendable for its capacity to transfer balls and load metal sheets. It also possesses a full protection guard system. Shears are used in order to provide smooth and quiet operation while cutting or manufacturing metal parts.

Plate bending machines

Plate bending machines vary according to specifications of the particular industry making use of this industrial product. There are goods that are best suited for small to medium production requirement for pipes, angles, flats and tubes. Ornamental and job shops will surely favor this type of bending machine. There are plate bending machines that are versatile enough with hydraulic forming features. This is commendable in industries were pipe, tube and aluminum extrusion bending is required.

There are other types of metal fabrication equipment sold by a lot of manufacturers. At times, this equipment may be available from second hand machine stores. What matters is that the machine will work for the particular manufacturing process it has to serve.

How to Fix an Aluminum Sliding Door

Aluminium Window Frames Details

When building or renovating, people often consider the windows and doors last. After all, don't they all look the same apart from the sizes? And this is ironic when they cover nearly half of the total surface of the house. Whether you choose wooden, iron, concrete or aluminium doors and windows, the right choice can boost the value of the house, provide ample natural lighting, enhance the design and give a feeling of space. Apart from the design, there's also the issue of workability. This pertains to where your windows or doors will be located, how they open, and whether you need enough ventilation or if the door or window just serves their primary purpose.

Comparing Aluminium Vs.Wood

There's a distinct edge in choosing aluminium folding doors over timber and that's less maintenance over their expected lifecycle. You won't have to worry about termites or carpenter bees boring holes in your wooden door or window frames. When you require double glazing, for example, aluminium is the right choice as it is more pliant to accepting the additional embellishment. Make sure, however, to choose the right installers since come companies cutting corners and fail to apply waterproofing techniques which ultimately result to nagging soggy and clammy issues on the frames, window sills and doors.

Choosing the Right Material

Aluminium is also identified as less secure compared to wood but this is not the case when choosing the right company that can install a sliding security door in your home. You only need superior quality aluminium. Be wary about doped aluminium or the lower-grade aluminium alloy. Aluminium is graded according to the purity of the material. Ask the installer if the product passes national standards on thickness and yield strength. This can also be your legal remedy when the installer cuts on corners and install the wrong product. Apart from the practical issues, you also want to ensure the quality of the finished product. Windows and doors are supposed to enhance the look of your house so you don't focus on the functionality alone.

Price Points

The industry is brimming with installers of aluminium windows or folding doors and this is good for the consumers in the sense that competition drives prices down. Remember, the right windows and doors will look light on your home, introduce elegance, offer durability (which means less cost on maintenance), perfect for contemporary-style homes, and gives the appearance of space.

Aluminium Windows

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Fern Gully Have Aluminium Suppliers List

Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers Popular

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers in Popular  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Aluminum Extrusions For Glass it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Aluminium Window Frames For Sale

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Aluminium Windows

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Aluminum Extrusions For Glass the drawing process is skipped.

Aluminium Window Frames Catalogue

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers in Popular?

Aluminium Sections Catalogue

Metal fabrication equipment is used in important facets of the manufacturing industry. It serves the structural steel industry very well as it helps in other metal fabricating industries. Producers of this equipment have clients ranging from small and medium size enterprises to iron and fabricating shops and large construction companies.

The most common types of metal fabrication equipment include hydraulic press brakes, pinch rolls, plate shears, bending machines, tube benders and plate rolls. All these machines will help the entire workload easier. Look into the features of these types of equipment.

Hydraulic press brakes

Hydraulic press brakes are created to deliver the kind of ease and comfort an operator is looking for in the product. They are equipped with a ram system to provide maximum efficiency on operator control. Down stroking ram systems are favored over up stroking systems because they lessen operator fatigue. The system with a thick ram makes it easier to move in between extra heavy frames. Alongside with this component, a steel torsion is also utilized. At times, the hydraulic press brake contains limit switches and overload protection systems. Speeds of the press brakes are adjustable and controllable as well.

Hydraulic shears

This is yet another type of metal fabrication equipment used in order to make the job of individuals easier. Looking for those with foot pedals and emergency stops is highly favorable for the company. Programmable axes may help control blade gaps, stroke length, back gauge and shearing times. At times, the shears are also commendable for its capacity to transfer balls and load metal sheets. It also possesses a full protection guard system. Shears are used in order to provide smooth and quiet operation while cutting or manufacturing metal parts.

Plate bending machines

Plate bending machines vary according to specifications of the particular industry making use of this industrial product. There are goods that are best suited for small to medium production requirement for pipes, angles, flats and tubes. Ornamental and job shops will surely favor this type of bending machine. There are plate bending machines that are versatile enough with hydraulic forming features. This is commendable in industries were pipe, tube and aluminum extrusion bending is required.

There are other types of metal fabrication equipment sold by a lot of manufacturers. At times, this equipment may be available from second hand machine stores. What matters is that the machine will work for the particular manufacturing process it has to serve.

Scrap Aluminum Grades - How to Sort and Clean Scrap Aluminum to Maximize Its Value

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

The process of aluminum extrusion is simple and easy however it is very significant to know why extrusion is so important. In general metals like steel and aluminum is put to use in several industries, right from automobile, to telecommunication, transport, utensil manufacturing and at times even in the toy industry. Thus, both of these metals are in huge demand and find place is almost all the major manufacturing industries in the world.

Just after steel, aluminum is the other metal which is hugely popular all over the world. This can put in a manner stating that aluminum is the second most popular metal in the globe after steel. The former is widely available, has impressive properties, and is affordable, light weight, can withstand high temperatures and so on. And above all the aluminum extrusion involved in getting different shapes and forms for suppliers is cost-effective and simple. Both in US and Europe building industry and the telecom as well is highly dependent on aluminum extruded products. These products find a number of usages and are used in many applications.

So, what is aluminum extrusion? This is a process through which aluminum is given certain shapes and forms. It starts with the hot cylindrical billet of aluminum which is pushed through a shaped die. The billet is cut from DC cast log and placed in heated container (450°C - 500°C). When pushed through the die the metal flows through the steel die. The die is placed at the other end of the container. Now, once the log passes it produces a section, this can be cut into shapes either in long length or short. The section is cuts according to the customized demands of the clients since the log is meant to be used for any particular industry. In certain extrusion process rectangular shaped billets. In this process only wide section sized extrusions are produced. This again depends according the demands of the supplier.

Aluminum extrusion is done for several kinds of industry and these aluminum extruded products are very commonly used in building industry. In this industry you can use aluminum in prefabricated houses/building structures, window and door frame systems, curtain walling, roofing and exterior cladding, and shop fronts. Besides, they also find place in the telecommunication and transport industry. In transport industry aluminum extruded products are found in rail vehicles, marine applications, airframes and for vehicles on the road.

So, what makes aluminum so popular? It is the versatility and the flexibility of the material that turns in so popular. Since aluminum is high temperature resistance and is corrosion resistant as well it is used to make utensils and is also used on transport vehicles. Besides, it is strong even though it is light weight and thus it is used in airframes.

So, if you are out there still deciding on selecting aluminum extruded products or some other metal you can give your votes to this metal as it is affordable and durable as well. No more second thoughts to this go ahead with aluminum extrusion and the products.

Aluminium Window Frames Catalogue

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Fern Gully Have Aluminium Suppliers List

Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers Top

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers in Top  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Aluminium Window Frames For Sale

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Aluminum Extrusion Rail it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Aluminium Windows Cape Town

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Aluminium Sections Catalogue

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Storm Window Frame Extrusions the drawing process is skipped.

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers in Top?

Aluminium Window Frames Details

Aluminum doors are once popular in the home building industry. With the changes in architectural taste, however, many people opted for different styles of sliding doors. Nonetheless, even when the interest in this type of door has already declined, it still has various advantages that could not be provided by other types of doors.

For one, aluminum pocket doors are great space savers. They could be used in several instances when space is an issue. For example, a room which could not be fixed with a hinge door could make use of a pocket door. This is the case when there is a permanent obstruction along the pathway where the door swings. Since the door runs along a hidden track and vanishes inside a pocket in the wall, there is no longer a need to open the door fully by swinging. Thus, the door does not require more space before it could be opened. Also, a pocket door could effectively replace a standard door when there is no other way but hide the door inside the walls.

Aluminum sliding doors is also a great alternative to ordinary wood, vinyl or plastic doors. This is because the doors are predicted to capture the future trend in home designing alongside glass and other metals.

There are downsides to using the doors though. For one, these doors could not be used in places where there are extreme temperatures as aluminum tends to adopt to the temperature of its surrounding. This would not help neutralize the heat or the coldness inside a room, for example. Also, aluminum, unlike wood, glass and fiberglass doors, tends not to blend in with most architectural design. For instance, the doors would not work well with Victorian-style inspired homes. They are, however, common among conventional houses where steal panels and other metals are used in decorating the house.

Also, one cannot really play well with colors on the doors. Usually, homeowners have to settle with the metallic look. This doesn't say that the natural aluminum surface is not good. In fact it is. However, for people who are fond of playing with colors, the doors may not be the best choice.

Another drawback to using the doors is that they tend to catch the atmosphere of large kitchens since they are usually associated with the kitchen doors of most restaurants. But again, this may not be as bad at all since many people actually love to create a certain atmosphere in their kitchen that may only be contributed to metals.

A change of look is what a sliding door could give when used in residential homes. In the industrial settings however, they have become the mainstay.

Aluminium Windows and Doors - Beautifying the House

Aluminium Windows Pretoria If you have a wonderful house with a great view of your garden or picture-postcard scenery spread gorgeously in front then you need doors that give an unimpeded view.
Consider the standard options like sliding doors. A part of the opening will always remain covered regardless of whether you use two partitions or three partitions. French doors simply do not suit large openings. The answer is custom bifold doors especially when the opening is large and an unrestricted view is desired. They save space and give an unhindered view of the exteriors.
The term bifold doors may be a misnomer since these doors are, in effect, made up of several panels that fold together like an accordion or concertina into a compact bunch of panels that do not take up much space and stay neatly on one side of the opening. You have a clear view. Standard panel sizes may range from 24 to 36 inches in width or customized to suit the width of the openings, which could be a better option in some cases. Custom bifold doors can help save space and the use of matching hardware means it will be a joy to operate.
Customization could take several forms. You can choose to have bifold doors with narrow or broader panels to suit design considerations and aesthetics of how the door will look when fully closed. Narrow panels do give a nice look but in some cases one may wish for a less obstructed view in which case broader panels serve the purpose. Cost will also vary. Obviously more panels lead to higher cost but the advantage is that opening and closing the bifolds will be easier when the door has narrow panels and they take up less space.
Where there are doors with glass the question of curtains or blinds always comes up. Here again customization helps when you choose double glazing panels with inbuilt blinds that are totally sealed within and can be opened or closed by sliding a magnetic latch. Such integrated bifold doors also help save space and present a neater appearance. Then there are small details that the installer and manufacturer will take care of such as using quality sliding tracks, pivots and hinges that integrate seamlessly into the aluminum frame. Another matter that necessitates customization is whether to place the track at the top or bottom. It is best to consult a reputed door supplier and installer and get a site inspection in order to get a customized fitting.
Bifold doors are not meant just as a partition between indoors and outdoors. They can also be used indoors to good effect as space savers between rooms. One can have a larger opening without the inconvenience of large door panels creating obstructions in confined spaces.
Bifold doors have several advantages such as ease of use, complete opening up of a room to the outside, security with the right set of hardware and energy efficiency. These advantages can be further enhanced by customizing the bifold panels along with glazing and hardware fittings. Aluminium Windows

 


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Fern Gully Have Aluminium Suppliers List

Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers Tip

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers in Tip  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Aluminium Windows

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Aluminum Glass Frame Extrusion it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Aluminium Windows Pretoria

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Aluminium Window Sections Catalogue

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Aluminum Extrusion Corner Profiles the drawing process is skipped.

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium Door Frame Suppliers in Tip?

Aluminium Windows

When you are refurbishing or extending your house or building a new one you will face the question of which door material to use. Aluminum doors or steel doors? The most commonly used door materials are the aluminium, wood, PVC, steel, but which is better? Let's show the facts and situations to use either aluminium doors or steel doors.

One of the most important characteristics of a door is the durability. The durability greatly depends on the environment where the door is implemented, the conditions of use or the area where it is installed.

Exteriors

This is one of the biggest obstacles for using doors. Although we can use some stainless steel that combines iron, chromium, and many other elements. It can be a little expensive if we want great corrosion resistance and thus, durability. Stainless steel can get marked up with fingerprints and grease, develop discolouration, scratches and eventually rust. In coastal areas, the corrosion issues get worse decreasing the useful life of the steel door, so the maintenance with protective layers of paint is periodically needed.

On the other hand, the aluminium doors are the perfect choice for outsides since it has a natural resistance to corrosion that makes it maintenance free. For example, the aluminium doors are even lighter than their steel counterparts at a very similar price, and the flexibility of the material offers much more profile styles than doors. So let's say aluminium doors are mostly recommended for the steel doors for the outsides unless you need the structural strength of the steel for hard use or safety reasons.

Insides

In this situation, the steel doors are preferred since they are cheaper, safer and more resistant than aluminium since it cannot be kicked and is extremely hard to bend, even using tools. The aluminium counterpart can be more expensive, but it can give a premium feel to the door when the correct door style is used. Additionally, the aluminium doors offer a great variety of finishes and colours that result in a nice look in the right circumstances. The steel doors can be stylish too since they do an excellent job of imitating the wood with the use of some advanced state-of-art door.

Home security

Home intruders are one of the major concerns for every family guy. The best option for security issues are the steel doors since the steel is one of the strongest material to manufacture a door. The steel door won't crack or warp, and there are some high-security steel door models that feature a large number of locks and hinges with different style designs. There is also some high-security doors that use aluminium as a main metal component, so the aluminium doors are not left behind on this subject.

Thermal insulations

Both door presentations are not solid steel or aluminium. They have foam, wood, polyurethane or polystyrene foam or fiberglass core to prevent the heat transfer. So, in this case, both doors have a great thermal insulation that will help you to keep your house warm in the winter and cool in the summer, making them energy efficient.

Esthetics
As mentioned before, the aluminium offers a choice of colours to match the style of your home. Meanwhile, when we want to avoid the rust on the steel, the galvanized steel is recommended. Nonetheless, this kind of steel is not easy to customize or paint. If you want a customized steel door that endures at lifetime, you have to pay for the premium stainless steel, which is not cheap at all. An alternative to premium stainless steel but not as good-looking is a coat of weather-resistant paint since the steel can accept a large variety of paint types but they must be weather-resistant to prevent corrosion and be falling apart because of the rust expansion in the steel door.

Cost

The cost of the steel and aluminium doors depends greatly on the security level, style, and corrosion resistance. The steel doors can be really inexpensive when the corrosion resistance is not required, and its maintenance is easy to do. But if you need corrosion resistance, galvanized steel could be a cheap but not an aesthetic option. The expensive premium steel offers the bests doors in terms of aesthetics, security and endurance options.

In the case of the aluminium doors, they are cheaper than premium steel doors, but they offer improved natural corrosion resistance for a longer useful life. Nonetheless, the aluminium doors are not made for hard use which can hinder its useful life and result in an extra cost by replacing the door after a rigorous use as is in a patio with kids and pets.

Verdict

Both doors have enormous potential in different areas, but if you do not care about saving money, I think the winners are the doors thanks to its great versatility and variety of presentation for almost any budget and environment. The steel doors are a reliable option for security, durability, and aesthetics.

The aluminium doors are quite good as well, they offer a maintenance free material with excellent durability for a reasonable price. However, it lacks structural strength in comparison to the steel doors. You have the ultimate decision to choose the best door that can fit your style, secure and budget requirements.

Solid Security Glass Block Windows & Walls For Commercial, Architectural and Institutional Projects

Aluminium Windows Cape Town

High strength aluminium alloys.

The origin of aluminium alloys in aircraft construction started with the first practical all-metal aircraft in 1915 made by Junkers in Germany, of materials said to be `iron and steel'. Steel presented the advantages of a high modulus of elasticity, high proof stress and high tensile strength. Unfortunately these were accompanied by a high specific gravity, almost three times that of the aluminium alloys and about ten times that of plywood. Aircraft designers during the 1930s were therefore forced to use steel in its thinnest forms. To ensure stability against buckling of the thin plate, intricate shapes for spar sections were devised.

In 1909 Alfred Wilm, in Germany, accidentally discovered that an aluminium alloy containing 3.5 per cent copper, 0.5 per cent magnesium and silicon and iron, as unintended impurities, spontaneously hardened after quenching from about 480°C. The patent rights of this material were acquired by Durener Metallwerke who marketed the alloy under the name Duralumin. For half a century this alloy has been used in the wrought heat-treated, naturally aged condition. The improvements in these properties produced by artificial ageing at a raised temperature of, for example, 175°C, were not exploited in the aircraft industry until about 1934.

In addition to the development of duralumin (first used as a main structural material by Junkers in 1917) three other causes contributed to the replacement of steel by aluminium alloys. These were a better understanding of the process of heat treatment, the introduction of extrusions in a wide range of sections and the use of pure aluminium cladding to provide greater resistance to corrosion. By 1938, three groups of aluminium alloys dominated the field of aircraft construction and, in fact, they retain their importance to the present day. The groups are separated by virtue of their chemical composition, to which they owe their capacity for strengthening under heat treatment.

The first group is contained under the general name duralumin having a typical composition of: 4 per cent copper, 0.5 per cent magnesium, 0.5 per cent manganese, 0.3 per cent silicon, 0.2 per cent iron, with the remainder aluminium. The naturally aged version was covered by Air Ministry Specification DTD 18 issued in 1924, while artificially aged duralumin came under Specification DTD 111 in 1929. DTD 111 provided for slight reductions in 0.1 per cent proof stress and tensile strength.

The second group of aluminium alloys differs from duralumin chiefly by the introduction of 1 to 2 per cent of nickel, a high content of magnesium and possible variations in the amounts of copper, silicon and iron. `Y' alloy, the oldest member of the group, has a typical composition of. 4 per cent copper, 2 per cent nickel, 1.5 cent magnesium, the remainder being aluminium and was covered by Specification DTD 58A issued in 1927. Its most important property was its retention of strength at high temperatures, which meant that it was a particularly suitable material for aero engine pistons. Its use in airframe construction has been of a limited nature only. Research by Rolls-Royce and development by High Duty Alloys Ltd produced the `RR' series of alloys. Based on Y alloy, the RR alloys had some of the nickel replaced by iron and the copper reduced. One of the earliest of these alloys, RR56 had approximately half of the 2 per cent nickel replaced by iron, the copper content reduced from 4 to 2 per cent, and was used for forgings and extrusions in aero engines and airframes.

The third and latest group depends upon the inclusion of zinc and magnesium and their high strength. Covered by Specification DTD 363 issued in 1937, these alloys had a nominal composition: 2.5 per cent copper, 5 per cent zinc, 3 per cent magnesium and up to 1 per cent nickel. In modern versions of this alloy nickel has been eliminated and provision made for the addition of chromium and further amounts of manganese.

Aircraft structural aluminium.

Of the three basic structural materials, namely wood, steel and aluminium alloy, only wood is no longer of significance except in laminates for non-structural bulkheads, floorings and furnishings. Most modern aircraft still rely on modified forms of the high strength aerospace aluminium alloys which were introduced during the early part of the 20th century. Steels are used where high strength, high stiffness and wear resistance are required. Other materials, such as titanium and fibre-reinforced composites first used about 1950, are finding expanding uses in airframe construction.

Aluminium Windows

 


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