Aluminium Section Price Sandton

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium Section Price in Sandton  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Aluminium Window Frames Catalogue

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Aluminium Frame it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Aluminium Sections Catalogue

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Aluminium Window Frames Details

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Stock Aluminum Extrusions the drawing process is skipped.

Aluminium Window Frames Details

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium Section Price in Sandton?

Aluminium Window Frames Details

While aluminium is a very versatile material and aluminium doors can be suitably installed in a variety of indoor and outdoor contexts, two of the best places for the installation of aluminium doors are in industrial locations and as barriers between the inside and outside.

Aluminium doors are ideally suited to being installed as a barrier between indoor and outdoor environments because of their weatherproof and durable nature. This makes them a top choice for patio doors and café or bar doors leading to courtyards. Aluminium is one of best materials for patio door frames because the metal is a strong and very low-maintenance product. The advantages of installing aluminium framed doors as barriers between in and outdoors are largely due to the natural properties of the metal which make it resistant to corrosion as well as being impermeable and odourless. The aluminium framed doors do not rust and provide premium stability if installed correctly. Not only do doors of aluminium come in an extensive range of powder coated colours, they can also be carefully patterned for various aesthetic effects. Finally, aluminium framed doors are one of the best doors to be installed between interior and exterior because they won't warp or swell in damp conditions as wooden doors often do.

One of the second locations where doors of aluminium are best installed is in the heavy duty contexts of factories and warehouses where they are often the number one choice for a variety of applications. The popularity of aluminium doors in these environments is due again to the naturally strong, durable and low-maintenance nature of the metal. Aluminium is able to withstand any of the bumps and scrapes that are customary during the movement and transport of industrial machinery and products. Doors for industrial locations are made from large, high-strength metal panels that withstand the passage of oversize cargo and bulky machinery. Another reason why aluminium doors are such a top choice for heavy duty purposes is because the metal can be thermally treated to be scratch and dent resistant.

These are just too of the most popular locations for aluminium framed doors, but really, with such a versatile metal, the possible applications are endless. As well as providing a practical patio door and industrial door solution, glass and aluminium doors can be used inside the home in bathrooms and bedrooms as well as in the interiors or offices and other commercial constructions.

How Manufacturers Do Aluminum Extrusion?

Aluminium Sections Catalogue

Aluminum doors are once popular in the home building industry. With the changes in architectural taste, however, many people opted for different styles of sliding doors. Nonetheless, even when the interest in this type of door has already declined, it still has various advantages that could not be provided by other types of doors.

For one, aluminum pocket doors are great space savers. They could be used in several instances when space is an issue. For example, a room which could not be fixed with a hinge door could make use of a pocket door. This is the case when there is a permanent obstruction along the pathway where the door swings. Since the door runs along a hidden track and vanishes inside a pocket in the wall, there is no longer a need to open the door fully by swinging. Thus, the door does not require more space before it could be opened. Also, a pocket door could effectively replace a standard door when there is no other way but hide the door inside the walls.

Aluminum sliding doors is also a great alternative to ordinary wood, vinyl or plastic doors. This is because the doors are predicted to capture the future trend in home designing alongside glass and other metals.

There are downsides to using the doors though. For one, these doors could not be used in places where there are extreme temperatures as aluminum tends to adopt to the temperature of its surrounding. This would not help neutralize the heat or the coldness inside a room, for example. Also, aluminum, unlike wood, glass and fiberglass doors, tends not to blend in with most architectural design. For instance, the doors would not work well with Victorian-style inspired homes. They are, however, common among conventional houses where steal panels and other metals are used in decorating the house.

Also, one cannot really play well with colors on the doors. Usually, homeowners have to settle with the metallic look. This doesn't say that the natural aluminum surface is not good. In fact it is. However, for people who are fond of playing with colors, the doors may not be the best choice.

Another drawback to using the doors is that they tend to catch the atmosphere of large kitchens since they are usually associated with the kitchen doors of most restaurants. But again, this may not be as bad at all since many people actually love to create a certain atmosphere in their kitchen that may only be contributed to metals.

A change of look is what a sliding door could give when used in residential homes. In the industrial settings however, they have become the mainstay.

Aluminium Window Frames Details

https://ferngully.co.za/johannesburg/

Fern Gully Have Aluminium Section List

Aluminium Section Price Tips

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium Section Price in Tips  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Aluminium Window Frames Details

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Aluminum Window Frame Extrusions it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Aluminium Windows South Africa

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Aluminium Window Frames Catalogue

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Aluminum Extrusion Slider the drawing process is skipped.

Aluminium Sections Catalogue

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium Section Price in Tips?

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

Aluminum doors are a popular choice for commercial properties adding strength and durability and reducing the risk of the door being broken down. While these may seem a great choice, especially from modern buildings, they do offer their own advantages and disadvantages that you need to be aware of.

Aluminum doors come with a host of advantages, which is what makes them such a popular choice in the commercial and industrial industries. These are also increasing in popularity in modern homes, where homeowners are looking to add that industrial chic to their finished design.

One of the biggest advantages to this option is the stability, strength and durability that these doors provide. Aluminum is exceptionally strong and this is displayed by the quality and strength of these products, which can last for many years, often outlasting many of the other materials available on the market today.

They work exceptionally well in buildings which have already incorporated aluminum windows, blending the two together to create a beautifully finished building that will stand the test of time.

Another advantage to these products is their ability to stand up in any weather conditions. It doesn't matter if you are based in the heart of the dessert or on the coast, which is constantly plagued by sea air. These products are weatherproof and strong and can handle vast temperature changes without signs of wear and tear.

You will find that aluminum doors are available from most suppliers, which is always a huge advantage. They can be found in most suppliers around the world and do not require that you hunt for them. If you have already chosen this material for your entry, then you should be able to find a reputable supplier who can supply and install the product for you in the shortest space of time.

Only in cases where the door is custom made will this process take longer, but in the majority of cases the supplier will have a number of doors in various sizes readily available and just waiting to be installed.

A huge advantage for any business owners is to know that their door won't require much maintenance over the years. The good news is that aluminum doors don't rust, so they are ideal in any climate, especially those that are close to the sea. Salty air can be exceptionally damaging, but these products are treated ensuring that they can withstand anything that is thrown their way.

Everything available on the market comes with some disadvantages and aluminum doors are no different. There are some cons to using these products over the other materials available on the market.

One of the disadvantages is that they tend to stain from constant water. If your building is in a very wet area which sees a lot of rain, you can expect some marks which will increase over time. While the product won't rust, the marks can be rather unsightly, so this needs to be taken into consideration when making a final decision on whether these are the right choice for your business or building.

Another disadvantage is that these can be more expensive that the other products available on the market. The metal prices are constantly fluctuating which makes it exceptionally difficult to budget until you have the product on order.

Most suppliers will be able to give you a final price when you ask for an estimate. Also bear in mind that because these are such high quality doors, they do require specialist installers who have experience with these products, ensuring they are installed to the highest standard.

Choosing someone to handle the installation that aren't knowledgeable on aluminum doors can result in you having to call out a repair company much sooner than anticipated.

Aluminium Windows and Doors - Beautifying the House

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

The proper placement of doors and windows is essential in a house for the good light and ventilation. So, what would be better than having the option of aluminium doors and windows? The correct ventilation not only provides you with fresh air but keeps the house cool and cuts down the electricity bills, to a certain extent. There are many other green and eco friendly materials for this purpose, but they don't give a good appealing view. Aluminium, on the other hand, has all these qualities and looks appealing to the eye also. They are super efficient, strong, light weight and cheap too. It also has other qualities like it can withstand many harsh factors like the chemicals, heat, corrosion, etc.

The other advantage of the aluminium doors and windows is that they are available in a huge range of shapes, designs, sizes and with different color finishes. The finishes include matte, solid, shiny, etc. You can also get it personalized paint finishes or faux finishes of your own choice. There is an option of the danmer customized doors windows and shutters. They are available in the form of the sliding doors, fixed windows, and many more. These would improve the indoor of your house.

These doors and windows consume far less space than the traditional ones made of iron or wood. This can be a boon in case you have less space at your place. Therefore, you can fit more and more things in a small area with the help of the aluminium doors and windows.

The other factor that makes it different from others is that these windows and doors are very easy to install and only require a bit of information. They are eco friendly and can be recycled. If combined with fiberglass or the plastic glass, then it could be the most intelligent thing one can do. It is the best combination which is attractive and low maintenance for the long run.

The doors and windows made of aluminium are extremely useful and can be recycled. It has many advantages over the wooden or the iron windows. So, the best option for your house is to have the proper symmetry and matching of the windows and doors which would make your house beautiful.

Aluminium Window Frames For Sale

https://ferngully.co.za/johannesburg/

Fern Gully Have Aluminium Section List

Aluminium Section Price Best

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium Section Price in Best  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Aluminium Window Frames Catalogue

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Modular Aluminium Frame it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Aluminium Windows

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Aluminium Windows Pretoria

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Aluminum Extrusions Online the drawing process is skipped.

Aluminium Window Frames For Sale

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium Section Price in Best?

Aluminium Windows Cape Town

Having lived with all three types of windows and patio doors in the past three years, I feel that I am an 'expert user' when it comes to opening and closing in each medium: wood, pvc and aluminium.

First, the novice's choice: wood. It looks great, feels warm, can be stained a medium or dark shade or painted any colour of the spectrum. It's an age-old medium so what can go wrong? The main problems are humidity and strong sunlight.

There are varying qualities of wood on offer, depending on your budget. A moderately-priced pair of French doors on a south-facing house wall suffered a degree of warping, creating gaps that had to be plugged each winter in an attempt to keep the cold draughts at bay whereas, in warmer damp circumstances, the door had to be forcibly pushed and pulled back into its aperture.

Two good summers and the four coats of varnish had virtually vapourised, revealing cracking wood that needed nourishing and protecting from the next couple of years' weather.

Second, the double-glazing salesman's special offer: PVC. Overpriced by a couple of well-known companies who then discount by 50% if you hesitate, PVC is also available in varying qualities. At the higher end of the market, the frames are often reinforced with metal.

Generally with more features than wooden doors and windows, PVC should not require much more than a quick wipe with a damp cloth for the first few years and its looks are therefore easier to maintain. We have some PVC French Doors from the lower price range. As value for money, they are quite good but an element of trust is lacking in terms of defence against determined intruders. They feel floppy and flimsy when opening and closing and there's a knack to locking and unlocking them successfully. We have older PVC doors from the higher price range and, whilst more sturdy (reinforced with metal) they are looking a tad ratty.

The PVC windows screeched with wind whistling through, like semi-detached tinnitus.

Thirdly and finally, the long term investment: powder-coated aluminium frames. If you are fed up with sanding down wooden frames and considering the easy option of PVC or coated aluminium, particularly for a wide opening with multi-folding doors. Consider whether PVC is up to the task of substituting for the wall of your house.

Stand back and look through closed doors at the difference between PVC and aluminium - it is very noticeable. With PVC, there are windows of scenery between wide areas of plastic (two frames together might measure between 8 and 10 inches, 20 to 25cms) so the doors block up to 20 per cent of the potential view and light-source.
 
Aluminium frames on bifolding doors from manufacturer SunSeeker Doors, being stronger, are only about 2 inches or 5 centimeters. The profile is also considerably smaller so the doors use far less space than PVC or wood when folded back. For those who want color, several options are available to order, the most popular (after standard white) are: Grey, blue, green, brown and silver. Aluminium Frames are more expensive than cheap PVC or wood but prices are comparable with the better quality PVC doors. Is aluminum worth the extra cost? If you want the "wow" factor, strength, longevity, maximum living space and the most panoramic view,Yes.

Aluminum Frames Vs PVC Or Wood - Are They Worth the Extra Cost?

Aluminium Sections Catalogue

Aluminum sliding doors are located in various rooms of a building. This could be used as terrace or patio doors leading into the garden. Other places could be on first floor leading into the balcony from a family room upstairs or bedroom. The are different types used, one side fixed and other sliding and or two sliding panels and a fixed one. The room and size of opening determines which type to use. This also determines the glazing to be put.

When ready to fix an aluminum sliding door, whether due to replacement or anew, first measure the opening. Ensure that all railings , rollers, glazing are all in place. Line the opening smooth with plaster and check sides, floor and top. Ensure corners are square, jambs are plumb while top and bottom level. Fix the frame work by screwing into the reveals and jambs. Hacking the bottom part slightly recesses the framework for it to be flush with floor.

After the aluminum sliding door framing is in place, assemble the fixed part. Take the glazing and tie the frame round, it while inserting the rubber lining. Slide this panel and screw it into the frame firmly. Start sliding panel assembly and fix glazing as before, insert the rollers and push into the guiders. Let the panel roll along to the fixed side. screw adjust the wheels by pushing them up or down. Clean debris on guiders and remove dust.

Now that aluminum sliding door is assembled, place correctly each panel. Ensure that the fixed panel is on the outer guider and sliding part in the inside one. This prevents draught during windy days. Add the linings on the grooves provided to stop shaking during windy days or when opening. Add the locking latch and test the mechanism when inside and outside the room. Fix the alarm system if provided on moving panel and frame,then clean the door.

Aluminium Windows South Africa

 


https://ferngully.co.za/johannesburg/

Fern Gully Have Aluminium Section List

Aluminium Section Price Sandton

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium Section Price in Sandton  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Aluminium Window Frames Details

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Storm Window Frame Extrusions it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Aluminium Window Frames Catalogue

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Aluminium Windows

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Flat Aluminum Extrusions the drawing process is skipped.

Aluminium Windows South Africa

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium Section Price in Sandton?

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

Over the last several years, heavy-weight particle board and cabinet-based displays have lost their appeal and made way for the next innovation in displays systems - truss display systems. Today, exhibitors who want a display that looks substantial without the cost and assembly headache of cabinetry are choosing truss systems.

The Problem

Display systems that use materials such as cabinets and laminate panels to create larger island displays can cost exhibitors thousands in shipping and assembly costs alone for each show. On top of that, constant assembly and tear-down of these systems can leave them chipped, scratched and beat-up after just a few years.

The Solution

Today, while laminate panel systems are still widely used and requested, a new breed of aluminum frame displays can be a less-costly alternative. These systems are sleek, functional, and offer all of the amenities of laminate panel systems, including shelving, overhead lighting, and storage. Additionally, these systems offer versatile and striking visual options including backlit graphics, tension fabric graphics and areas for plasma screens and computer demos.

How They Can Maximize Your Budget

As an alternative to heavier wood displays, aluminum displays are much lighter in weight, making them far less costly to ship. Additionally, many aluminum frame displays assemble without the need for tools, saving money in set-up costs.

The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Glass Doors And Partitions

Aluminium Window Frames For Sale

In our past articles I talked about all the steps required to properly replace your old wood sash windows with energy efficient vinyl windows. I told you how to measure for the new windows. Then we discussed the removal of the wood sashes and parting bead. Finally, I told you how to install, seal, and trim the vinyl replacement windows. But, what if those old windows in your home are made of aluminum instead of wood? Is the process the same? No, it's not the same at all. So, the next few articles are going to explain the differences between replacing wood windows versus aluminum windows.

When discussing the proper frame style for replacing the wood sash windows, I explained the difference between new construction frames versus replacement frames. When replacing aluminum windows, there is another option we have to consider regarding frame style. It's called a "retrofit" frame. Let's go over each frame type. First, we have the new construction frame with the nailing fin. If you choose to go this route, you have to remove the exterior around each window opening, pull out the nails holding the aluminum window to the studs, nail in the new vinyl window, apply flashing, caulk, and re-install the exterior around each window.(I get tired just talking about it!)In addition to being a whole lot of labor, you can run into major problems trying to install the exterior product around each window opening. If your home has stucco, you have to try and match the rest of the stucco. It can be done, but not by you. Even most professional stucco guys can't get a perfect match. What if you have wood siding? Well, you can cut away 2" of the siding around each window to get to the nail fin, then you can apply 1 X 2 or 1 X 3 trim around each window. Certainly not as much work as the stucco home, but probably more work than the average homeowner cares to tackle. What if each window is surrounded by brick? Let's not even go there! You would have to remove the bricks, then re-install them all when finished.

Trust me, you don't want to replace your old aluminum windows with new construction vinyl windows. You want to use either the replacement frame like the one used to replace the wood sash windows, or something called a retrofit frame, that is popular in the west where stucco is a common exterior. Since the procedure for measuring is the same regardless of the frame style chosen, this article will discuss the proper measuring procedure, and future articles will explain the difference in the installation process for replacement versus retrofit.

If you look at the portion of the aluminum frame that goes around the window opening into your surrounding walls, you will see three separate "legs" that form two pockets. The outside leg and the center leg form the first pocket. Your screen and stationary panel will be in this pocket. The center leg and inside leg form the second pocket, and your sliding panel is in that pocket. Find the "leg" that is the widest on all four sides. When measuring the width, run your tape measure from the widest leg on the left to the widest leg on the right. This should be the narrowest measurement. Then, subtract 3/8" from that measurement. This is the width of the replacement window. Measure the height the same way. When measuring the height, measure as close to the center of the window as possible. This is especially important on windows wider than six feet, because the top wood header has a tendency to sag over time, making the center of the opening the narrowest. You don't need to deduct 3/8" from the height like you did on the width. 1/4" is fine. These are the dimensions you use when ordering your vinyl window. If you have any picture windows(windows without a vent panel), there will only be two legs and one pocket. You still measure the same way.

Next week I will discuss whether your home is a candidate for retrofit frames or replacement frames...

Aluminium Windows

 


https://ferngully.co.za/johannesburg/

Fern Gully Have Aluminium Section List