Aluminium T Section Price Guide

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium T Section Price in Guide  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Aluminium Windows Pretoria

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Buy Aluminum Extrusion it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Aluminium Window Frames Catalogue

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Aluminium Window Frames For Sale

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Aluminum Extrusion Rail the drawing process is skipped.

Aluminium Windows

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium T Section Price in Guide?

Aluminium Window Frames Catalogue

"We can't stop the thugs in this neighborhood from breaking out, shooting out, and vandalizing these expensive insulated glass windows we put in the school just last year," the maintenance supervisor said. "Do you have a solution that can stop our cycle of throwing good money after bad?" he said. Unfortunately this is not an unfamiliar concern with owners, managers, and maintenance supervisors of commercial buildings, schools, courthouses, and transit authorities.

How can you stop this cycle of spending, time loss, and frustration? Consider solid glass block window and walls. In this article you'll learn:

1. Why architects and building owners use high security glass masonry units
2. Where to use solid blocks and glass bricks.
3. Options and accessories in security blocks and bricks.

Why architects and building owners use high security glass masonry units

The cheapest way to put up a glass window or wall in a commercial, architectural, or institutional project is with a standard single pane or insulated glass system constructed generally with a vinyl or aluminum framing system. However if your business or facility is located where graffiti, vandalism, bullets, bad weather, noise, or fire are a concern the lowest initial cost window or wall system may not be the answer for achieve the best life cycle costs. The Vistabrik line of solid security glass blocks from Pittsburgh Corning may be what you're searching for. Some reasons building owners have chosen this line of blocks include:

Bullet resistant- These blocks are UL tested and made of 3" thick glass to resist penetration from high impact weapons including 9 mm and .357 magnum bullets.

Reduce vandalism and graffiti - With "non-stick" glass surfaces graffiti is easier to remove and forcible entry is difficult since 8" x 8" x 3" blocks weigh 40 lbs. per square foot mortared together.

Fire resistant - When a higher level of building safety and fire resistance are desired without having to look at ugly wires in the glass, solid glass blocks are a preferred choice. Window panels can be designed with 45, 60, and 90 minute UL approved fire ratings.

Noise reduction - Buildings near train stations, large crowds, traffic, and machinery can be hard to lease and suffer from poor employee productivity. Solid glass bricks have a Sound Transmission Class of 53 and a noise reduction coefficient of .05 resulting in quieter interior spaces.

Cut maintenance costs - Solid glass masonry units can reduce total costs of ownership if you select this durable, hard to break block at the initial stages of the building project - thereby saving ongoing maintenance costs of repair and replacing glass windows and walls.

Where to use solid blocks and glass bricks

Here are some places where solid glass blocks have been used most frequently in commercial, institutional and architectural projects:

Gymnasiums and recreation facilities - one installation is Lloyd Hall in Philadelphia Pennsylvania.

Elevated walkways and parking garages - (check out the walkway at Perry High School in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania and parking garage at Logan Airport in Boston Massachusetts).

Glass block stairwells, shelters, and walls in transit stations, jails, detention centers, courthouses, police stations, and embassies - Solid glass units provide security without giving up light and looks. Some interesting installations include Yankee Stadium Complex for the New York City Transit Authority and the Clay County Detention Center in Liberty Missouri.

Glass block windows in factories and manufacturing buildings - A building owner in Columbus Ohio is planning to use solid glass bricks to replace insulated glass aluminum framed windows that have been getting broken and shot out.

Options and Accessories in Security Blocks and Bricks

If you're looking for a clear view window or wall or need higher privacy, then the selection of solid glass blocks is for you. For a high clarity look there are 8" x 8" x 3", 4" x 8" x 3" and 3" x 8" x 3" sizes available. For higher privacy projects the 8" x 8" x 3" size can be supplied with a stippled face.

The solid blocks are generally mortared together with galvanized panel reinforcing through the horizontal mortar joints (usually every 24") and panel anchors (every 24" as well) to tie the window panels into the jambs or sides of the opening. These glass masonry units also meet tempered glass windows standards due to their strength.

Conclusion

Keeping building costs and security and safety concerns down has never been as important as it is today in our unstable world. Using solid security glass block windows and walls can be one step to provide building owners, employees, and parents with increased comfort, style, security and most importantly - peace of mind.

Aluminium Window Frames

Aluminium Windows

When building or renovating, people often consider the windows and doors last. After all, don't they all look the same apart from the sizes? And this is ironic when they cover nearly half of the total surface of the house. Whether you choose wooden, iron, concrete or aluminium doors and windows, the right choice can boost the value of the house, provide ample natural lighting, enhance the design and give a feeling of space. Apart from the design, there's also the issue of workability. This pertains to where your windows or doors will be located, how they open, and whether you need enough ventilation or if the door or window just serves their primary purpose.

Comparing Aluminium Vs.Wood

There's a distinct edge in choosing aluminium folding doors over timber and that's less maintenance over their expected lifecycle. You won't have to worry about termites or carpenter bees boring holes in your wooden door or window frames. When you require double glazing, for example, aluminium is the right choice as it is more pliant to accepting the additional embellishment. Make sure, however, to choose the right installers since come companies cutting corners and fail to apply waterproofing techniques which ultimately result to nagging soggy and clammy issues on the frames, window sills and doors.

Choosing the Right Material

Aluminium is also identified as less secure compared to wood but this is not the case when choosing the right company that can install a sliding security door in your home. You only need superior quality aluminium. Be wary about doped aluminium or the lower-grade aluminium alloy. Aluminium is graded according to the purity of the material. Ask the installer if the product passes national standards on thickness and yield strength. This can also be your legal remedy when the installer cuts on corners and install the wrong product. Apart from the practical issues, you also want to ensure the quality of the finished product. Windows and doors are supposed to enhance the look of your house so you don't focus on the functionality alone.

Price Points

The industry is brimming with installers of aluminium windows or folding doors and this is good for the consumers in the sense that competition drives prices down. Remember, the right windows and doors will look light on your home, introduce elegance, offer durability (which means less cost on maintenance), perfect for contemporary-style homes, and gives the appearance of space.

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

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Aluminium T Section Price South Africa

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium T Section Price in South Africa  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Aluminum Framing System it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Aluminium Window Frames For Sale

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Aluminium Windows

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Aluminum Cabinet Frame Extrusions the drawing process is skipped.

Aluminium Window Frames Details

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium T Section Price in South Africa?

Aluminium Sections Catalogue If you have a wonderful house with a great view of your garden or picture-postcard scenery spread gorgeously in front then you need doors that give an unimpeded view.
Consider the standard options like sliding doors. A part of the opening will always remain covered regardless of whether you use two partitions or three partitions. French doors simply do not suit large openings. The answer is custom bifold doors especially when the opening is large and an unrestricted view is desired. They save space and give an unhindered view of the exteriors.
The term bifold doors may be a misnomer since these doors are, in effect, made up of several panels that fold together like an accordion or concertina into a compact bunch of panels that do not take up much space and stay neatly on one side of the opening. You have a clear view. Standard panel sizes may range from 24 to 36 inches in width or customized to suit the width of the openings, which could be a better option in some cases. Custom bifold doors can help save space and the use of matching hardware means it will be a joy to operate.
Customization could take several forms. You can choose to have bifold doors with narrow or broader panels to suit design considerations and aesthetics of how the door will look when fully closed. Narrow panels do give a nice look but in some cases one may wish for a less obstructed view in which case broader panels serve the purpose. Cost will also vary. Obviously more panels lead to higher cost but the advantage is that opening and closing the bifolds will be easier when the door has narrow panels and they take up less space.
Where there are doors with glass the question of curtains or blinds always comes up. Here again customization helps when you choose double glazing panels with inbuilt blinds that are totally sealed within and can be opened or closed by sliding a magnetic latch. Such integrated bifold doors also help save space and present a neater appearance. Then there are small details that the installer and manufacturer will take care of such as using quality sliding tracks, pivots and hinges that integrate seamlessly into the aluminum frame. Another matter that necessitates customization is whether to place the track at the top or bottom. It is best to consult a reputed door supplier and installer and get a site inspection in order to get a customized fitting.
Bifold doors are not meant just as a partition between indoors and outdoors. They can also be used indoors to good effect as space savers between rooms. One can have a larger opening without the inconvenience of large door panels creating obstructions in confined spaces.
Bifold doors have several advantages such as ease of use, complete opening up of a room to the outside, security with the right set of hardware and energy efficiency. These advantages can be further enhanced by customizing the bifold panels along with glazing and hardware fittings.

The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Glass Doors And Partitions

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

Metal fabrication equipment is used in important facets of the manufacturing industry. It serves the structural steel industry very well as it helps in other metal fabricating industries. Producers of this equipment have clients ranging from small and medium size enterprises to iron and fabricating shops and large construction companies.

The most common types of metal fabrication equipment include hydraulic press brakes, pinch rolls, plate shears, bending machines, tube benders and plate rolls. All these machines will help the entire workload easier. Look into the features of these types of equipment.

Hydraulic press brakes

Hydraulic press brakes are created to deliver the kind of ease and comfort an operator is looking for in the product. They are equipped with a ram system to provide maximum efficiency on operator control. Down stroking ram systems are favored over up stroking systems because they lessen operator fatigue. The system with a thick ram makes it easier to move in between extra heavy frames. Alongside with this component, a steel torsion is also utilized. At times, the hydraulic press brake contains limit switches and overload protection systems. Speeds of the press brakes are adjustable and controllable as well.

Hydraulic shears

This is yet another type of metal fabrication equipment used in order to make the job of individuals easier. Looking for those with foot pedals and emergency stops is highly favorable for the company. Programmable axes may help control blade gaps, stroke length, back gauge and shearing times. At times, the shears are also commendable for its capacity to transfer balls and load metal sheets. It also possesses a full protection guard system. Shears are used in order to provide smooth and quiet operation while cutting or manufacturing metal parts.

Plate bending machines

Plate bending machines vary according to specifications of the particular industry making use of this industrial product. There are goods that are best suited for small to medium production requirement for pipes, angles, flats and tubes. Ornamental and job shops will surely favor this type of bending machine. There are plate bending machines that are versatile enough with hydraulic forming features. This is commendable in industries were pipe, tube and aluminum extrusion bending is required.

There are other types of metal fabrication equipment sold by a lot of manufacturers. At times, this equipment may be available from second hand machine stores. What matters is that the machine will work for the particular manufacturing process it has to serve.

Aluminium Windows Pretoria

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Fern Gully Have Aluminium Section List

Aluminium T Section Price Best

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium T Section Price in Best  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Aluminium Sections Catalogue

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Aluminum Extrusions Retail it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Aluminum Glass Frame Extrusion the drawing process is skipped.

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium T Section Price in Best?

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

Glass doors are a great choice for both homes and businesses, and offer a great many advantages. In this article I'm going to look at specifically what those advantages are, as well as covering possible disadvantages which you should be aware of.

One of the most obvious and appealing benefits of doors made from glass is the fact that they allow light to pass through. For doors which open to the outside there is the benefit of being able to enjoy natural sunlight entering the room. Not only does this sunlight look and feel much more pleasant than artificial light, but it also helps to reduce the need for that artificial lighting, lowering costs as well as representing a greener alternative.

But even in cases where the door is not an exterior one, a glass door still allows light to pass from one room to the other, not only creating a visually more attractive space, but also a more practical one, since there are fewer shadows and darker areas, maximising the efficient use of the room.

One of the possible disadvantages of course with glass is that it does not usually permit privacy. Clearly this is why very few bathrooms have doors made from glass! But there is a way in which you can enjoy the benefits of a glass door being able to allow light to pass through it whilst also enjoying a certain amount of privacy. Frosted glass, or even coloured opaque glass can be used for both partitions and doors to create an attractive feature which also provides the privacy required.

Another benefit of glass as a material for use in doors and partitions is that it is incredibly durable and extremely easy to keep clean. Glass does not rust, or corrode, it is not susceptible to woodworm, and it doesn't collect dust. All that is necessary to keep the glass door or glass partition looking clean and attractive is to give it an occasional wipe with a cloth and some glass cleaner. This is ideal for both businesses and homes.

One of the disadvantages of glass doors is that they are more liable to crack or break if they receive a very sharp knock or heavy blow. However, such a blow would probably cause significant damage to any door, and as they're made of toughened glass, glass doors and partitions are more than tough enough to cope with everyday use, and should not shatter or break revealing sharp edges should a seriously hard knock cause any damage.

Modern digital printing now also enables glass doors to be patterned or to have designs added. This is less useful for homes, but for businesses and commercial properties it provides the opportunity to have company logos or other relevant information included on the glass.

With a choice of colours and many different types of frameless glass doors, including fixed, hinged, sliding and folding systems, there are many benefits worth considering, both for the home and for business environments.

How to Fix an Aluminum Sliding Door

Aluminium Windows

Bifold doors are expensive but well worth the investment if you are considering renovations. Your house opens up to the garden and creates an amazing aesthetic when these doors are installed. It pays to exercise caution and care in a selection of the doors and consider various factors.


Price is not everything

The cheapest is not the best and the most expensive also is not necessarily the best. A Bifold door is not just panels put together; it is an entire system where design, engineering precision and choice of hardware plays an important in the door's looks and performance just as much as the bifold door installation does. Buying a well known international brand with local support is a good option.


Material of door

Bifolds can have wood, steel, uPVC or aluminum section frames. Wood can obstruct the view and be heavy. uPVC material can flex and distort which will affect the working of the door and there is a size limitation as well. Steel can be heavy. Aluminum is the best material for sections. It is relatively stable and does not tend to distort with temperature variations. From the maintenance point too aluminum scores because powder coated or natural anodized aluminum does not need frequent paint or maintenance.


Top hung or bottom rolling?

Bifold doors are available as top hung or bottom rolling types. If a strong enough beam is present then the top hung type is best because it does not collect leaves and debris and the frame conceals the mechanism from view.


Hardware and installation

Hardware is complex with bifold doors and must be precision engineered from quality materials besides being fitted just right during installation. Improper alignment can affect performance and cause stress on frames besides making the door hard to open and close. Quality systems have wheels that run on flat tracks and pivoted end doors for smooth movement even when the jamb does not allow much adjustment. Bifold door installation is important too when it comes to getting the threshold right to prevent rain seepage and yet creating a smooth transition that does not cause one to stub one's toes. Rain penetration is an important matter especially if the door is exposed. This is where the expertise of installer comes into play to provide a perfectly rebated rain-proof threshold. Security is another aspect to consider in the matter of bifold door hardware and a typical secure door would have multipoint locking system with shoot bolt for intermediate panels.


Single or double glazing


Energy conservation is important so double glazing is recommended. It will also provide some degree of acoustic insulation. Quality manufacturers provide U-values of 1.8w/sqmK or lower for such energy efficient bifold doors.


Screening

There are times when one may want an unimpeded view and there are times when one may want to shut out the light. Curtains are good but can impede the view. Venetian blinds that roll up all the way to the top may be ideal. If you choose a double glazed door then the blinds may be incorporated into the panels but at the cost of impeding the view. It is best to coordinate with the installer and clear this point as well before ordering a bifold door.

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

 


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Fern Gully Have Aluminium Section List

Aluminium T Section Price Sandton

Aluminum is one of the most used metals in today’s society – Aluminium T Section Price in Sandton  it can be found across a number of industries, such as construction and commercial, and in a number of applications, such as beverage cans and appliances. When choosing a manufacturer of aluminium extrusion for supplying the metal that you use in your workplace, however, it is important that you carefully consider which one will be best for your needs.

Aluminium Windows South Africa

The manufacturer will begin by removing the aluminium from deep within the earth’s crust (either as bauxite ore or feldspar). Often, the Bayer’s method, Wohler’s method or Hall Heroult method is chosen to remove the metal in its molten form. It is then hardened and moulded into whatever shape the manufacturer desires. When the aluminium is extracted from the earth in its solid form, Aluminium Window Frame Extrusions it will be passed through a number of mechanical processes that are designed to give the metal its desired shape. These processes include: rolling, drawing, forging, spinning, piercing and extrusion.

Aluminium Windows

Regardless of whether aluminium has been found in its molten or solid form, the manufacturer will then pass it through either a hot working or cold working process to prepare it for their customers. When using the hot working process (the most popular of the two), a billet will be heated to a temperature of over 79 degrees Celsius, which will allow the aluminium to be easily distorted and placed into its desired shape.

Aluminium Window Sections Catalogue

The reason for the popularity of the hot working process over the cold working one can be fully realized when you compare aluminium extrusion to squeezing toothpaste out of its tube. It is much easier to extrude the metal when it is malleable, meaning that it must have been heated to a certain temperature.

Finally, the aluminium will pass through an extrusion and drawing process that runs almost parallel to each other. This is the final step in the whole extrusion process and is the step that gives the metal its entire shape. Deep drawing, for example, is used give the metal a cup, conical tapered, cylinder and seamless tube shape. For less curved shapes, Aluminum Extrusions Online the drawing process is skipped.

Aluminium Windows South Africa

Once you are satisfied with the processes and methods utilized by a potential manufacturer of aluminium extrusions, you can begin submitting your orders with them. If, after your first delivery, you are still satisfied with the manufacturer based on the promptness of the order being filled and the quality of the aluminium that you receive, you can continue the relationship.

Aluminium T Section Price in Sandton?

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

If you want durability, low maintenance and weather resistance, aluminum railings are just the right metal for you. Look out for the best manufacturers, wholesalers or distributors who can match up your expectations.

Aluminum railings have a long list of benefits to offer for your homes. For all custom applications aluminum is the best metal to be used. Impact resistance, color retention and weather ability in any environment are the best features of aluminum railings you can find. They can be a perfect complement for a decorative porch or deck.

The aluminum railings can achieve any kind of shape to match your home decorations. Aluminum will not rust especially when they are power coated offer long lasting finish with superior protection against the elements and do not splinter or crack. So you need not have to get it painted after every few years unlike steel.

Aluminum railings have minimal shrinkage and expansion characteristics and remain consistent throughout extreme heating and cooling temperatures. If you are considering for other options like wood then you will have to get it treated with pesticides or chemicals. They even splinter or fail completely at times causing injury. Aluminum railings on the other side eliminate all these and let you have a friendly environment eliminating all your health concerns.

There are many aluminum railings Surrey manufacturers in the market who can even create one of your own deck styles by mixing aluminum balusters with another material. For example, it can be combined with wooden or bamboo rails to create an exotic ambience. Amongst numerous other ones, underneath are some significant characteristics of aluminum deck and porch railings and its complements or benefits:

- Interior and exterior guardrails and handrails.

- Clear or encased functional glass, aluminum pickets, aluminum convention panels, or cable cord for infill section options:

  • ADA compliant catch rails
  • Steel embeds and hefty measure components & for strength
  • Tempered glass for security & influence resistance
  • Tough, powder-coated finishes for better climate opposition and hue retention.
  • Water corrosion: Special coatings for opposition to saline water.

Manufacture of Aluminum railings offers every combination of furniture and deck railings to distinguish your deck from others and have the ability to be included in almost all styles.

Aluminum Frames Vs PVC Or Wood - Are They Worth the Extra Cost?

Aluminium Window Frames Details

High strength aluminium alloys.

The origin of aluminium alloys in aircraft construction started with the first practical all-metal aircraft in 1915 made by Junkers in Germany, of materials said to be `iron and steel'. Steel presented the advantages of a high modulus of elasticity, high proof stress and high tensile strength. Unfortunately these were accompanied by a high specific gravity, almost three times that of the aluminium alloys and about ten times that of plywood. Aircraft designers during the 1930s were therefore forced to use steel in its thinnest forms. To ensure stability against buckling of the thin plate, intricate shapes for spar sections were devised.

In 1909 Alfred Wilm, in Germany, accidentally discovered that an aluminium alloy containing 3.5 per cent copper, 0.5 per cent magnesium and silicon and iron, as unintended impurities, spontaneously hardened after quenching from about 480°C. The patent rights of this material were acquired by Durener Metallwerke who marketed the alloy under the name Duralumin. For half a century this alloy has been used in the wrought heat-treated, naturally aged condition. The improvements in these properties produced by artificial ageing at a raised temperature of, for example, 175°C, were not exploited in the aircraft industry until about 1934.

In addition to the development of duralumin (first used as a main structural material by Junkers in 1917) three other causes contributed to the replacement of steel by aluminium alloys. These were a better understanding of the process of heat treatment, the introduction of extrusions in a wide range of sections and the use of pure aluminium cladding to provide greater resistance to corrosion. By 1938, three groups of aluminium alloys dominated the field of aircraft construction and, in fact, they retain their importance to the present day. The groups are separated by virtue of their chemical composition, to which they owe their capacity for strengthening under heat treatment.

The first group is contained under the general name duralumin having a typical composition of: 4 per cent copper, 0.5 per cent magnesium, 0.5 per cent manganese, 0.3 per cent silicon, 0.2 per cent iron, with the remainder aluminium. The naturally aged version was covered by Air Ministry Specification DTD 18 issued in 1924, while artificially aged duralumin came under Specification DTD 111 in 1929. DTD 111 provided for slight reductions in 0.1 per cent proof stress and tensile strength.

The second group of aluminium alloys differs from duralumin chiefly by the introduction of 1 to 2 per cent of nickel, a high content of magnesium and possible variations in the amounts of copper, silicon and iron. `Y' alloy, the oldest member of the group, has a typical composition of. 4 per cent copper, 2 per cent nickel, 1.5 cent magnesium, the remainder being aluminium and was covered by Specification DTD 58A issued in 1927. Its most important property was its retention of strength at high temperatures, which meant that it was a particularly suitable material for aero engine pistons. Its use in airframe construction has been of a limited nature only. Research by Rolls-Royce and development by High Duty Alloys Ltd produced the `RR' series of alloys. Based on Y alloy, the RR alloys had some of the nickel replaced by iron and the copper reduced. One of the earliest of these alloys, RR56 had approximately half of the 2 per cent nickel replaced by iron, the copper content reduced from 4 to 2 per cent, and was used for forgings and extrusions in aero engines and airframes.

The third and latest group depends upon the inclusion of zinc and magnesium and their high strength. Covered by Specification DTD 363 issued in 1937, these alloys had a nominal composition: 2.5 per cent copper, 5 per cent zinc, 3 per cent magnesium and up to 1 per cent nickel. In modern versions of this alloy nickel has been eliminated and provision made for the addition of chromium and further amounts of manganese.

Aircraft structural aluminium.

Of the three basic structural materials, namely wood, steel and aluminium alloy, only wood is no longer of significance except in laminates for non-structural bulkheads, floorings and furnishings. Most modern aircraft still rely on modified forms of the high strength aerospace aluminium alloys which were introduced during the early part of the 20th century. Steels are used where high strength, high stiffness and wear resistance are required. Other materials, such as titanium and fibre-reinforced composites first used about 1950, are finding expanding uses in airframe construction.

Alspec Aluminium Catalogue

 


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Fern Gully Have Aluminium Section List